In the last ten years, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy has become an important technique for studying molecular structures and dynamics. We report the implementation of heterodyne detected two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (HD 2D SFG) spectroscopy, which is the analog of 2D infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, but is selective to noncentrosymmetric systems such as interfaces. We implement the technique using mid-IR pulse shaping, which enables rapid scanning, phase cycling, and automatic phasing. Absorptive spectra are obtained, that have the highest frequency resolution possible, from which we extract the rephrasing and nonrephasing signals that are sometimes preferred. Using this technique, we measure the vibrational mode of CO adsorbed on a polycrystalline Pt surface. The 2D spectrum reveals a significant inhomogenous contribution to the spectral line shape, which is quantified by simulations. This observation indicates that the surface conformation and environment of CO molecules is more complicated than the simple “atop” configuration assumed in previous work. Our method can be straightforwardly incorporated into many existing SFG spectrometers. The technique enables one to quantify inhomogeneity, vibrational couplings, spectral diffusion, chemical exchange, and many other properties.
| Experimental and simulated HD 2D SFG spectra of a CO monolayer on a polycrystalline Pt surface. (A–C) Experimental absorptive, rephasing, and nonrephasing spectra with (D-F) their corresponding simulations.
W. Xiong, J. E. Laaser, R. D. Mehlenbacher, and M. T. Zanni, "Adding a dimension to the infrared spectra of interfaces using heterodyne detected 2D sum-frequency generation (HD 2D SFG) spectroscopy," Proc. National Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20902 (2011).